Patient Comments: Antinuclear Antibody Test - Testing


What were the results of your ANA test? Submit Your Comment

Comment from: Klamgirl, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: March 12

My ANA test result was 1:320 in November and now is 1:1280, 4 months later. I am waiting to see a rheumatologist. The doctor I was seeing in November refused to refer me. I am concerned that these results might mean that my condition is worsening quickly.

Comment from: Laugh1961, 55-64 Female (Patient) Published: December 16

My ANA rest result is ANA of 1:80, positive. nuclear, and homogenous. I have ulcerative colitis since 2016, in remission for 3 years. I have joint pain in my ankles and hands. Now my kidneys are getting progressively worse. I had EGFR 87 a few years ago, now down to 35. I am waiting for next appointment with nephrologist to review results.

Comment from: Me, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: September 22

The result of my ANA test was 1:80 15 years ago. Because of high autoimmunity in family and because I wasn't feeling bad other than hair loss, some tingling in extremities, and some memory issues (this was in my late 20s), rheumatologist ignored the results. When I was 44, I was diagnosed with an autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), Graves’ disease. Low positive ANA can be due to AITD, so maybe the autoimmune process was brewing even 15 years back. Now at 48, I have odd symptoms like hair loss, hands itchy to the point of bleeding, swollen face 3 times in 2020, and finger joint pain. I tested ANA, and it is 1:80, homogenous. Investigating if it is systemic lupus erythematosus.

Comment from: Khendra, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: April 17

I am 35 year old with type 1 diabetes and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. I have noticed new onset of joint stiffness and cracking, increased fatigue, very dry skin and mouth, and tightness of skin around the face along with wrinkled, shiny hands. I have occasional difficulty swallowing and breathing. ANA was positive, 1:160 titer, atypical speckled pattern. Wondering if I also now have Sjogren's or scleroderma.

Comment from: Rose72, 25-34 Female (Patient) Published: January 24

I wonder if it is possible to have an autoimmune disease and have an ANA dilution test result of 40 titer. I have had issues with swollen, stiff and painful joints, tingling in my hands and feet, and feeling very tired all the time for close to 8 years.

Comment from: Rieer, 35-44 (Patient) Published: March 15

I have a positive ANA result from the lab; AC 2, 4, 5, 29. I am not sure what that indicates. I have been treated for a few years now but this is a new result.

Comment from: Music Janet, 65-74 Female (Patient) Published: August 20

I am a 65 year old female in good health who just had a blood test with the results below. I can’t understand this information, though. ANA titer is 1:64 positive homogeneous and speckled, CRP (C-reactive protein) 1.0 mg/L, and rheumatoid factor (RF) 15 IU/mL.

Comment from: Starr, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: October 24

First time I had ANA test 10 years ago and result was 1:160 speckled. Now 1:40 high homogeneous, suspected lupus, and waiting on rheumatologist referral.

Comment from: Les, 65-74 Female (Patient) Published: July 01

My ANA test result was 1:2560. I was diagnosed over 20 years ago with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but now the rheumatologist says I do not have lupus. I have muscle and joint pain and was diagnosed with fibromyalgia as well. I suffer the most with extreme lethargy. I am in stage III kidney disease and my chromatin and ferritin levels are high. Lots of questions, not many answers.

Comment from: Lynnea, 55-64 Female (Patient) Published: June 11

I recently had my ANA tested. I've been having sore joints for months. My ANA was 1:1,280. I'll be going back for more testing and seeking a rheumatologist. I understand that number is quite high. I was tested for lupus about 15 years ago but it was inconclusive at that time. I have been feeling pretty good for many years up until the past 1 or 2 years.

Comment from: Confused, 65-74 (Patient) Published: May 20

I had progressive rise of SSA in 4 ANA tests with the last at 47, and symptoms are consistent with primary Sjogren's syndrome. Salivary gland biopsy was negative, so rheumatologist says no Sjogren's, but neurologist and primary care physician say I am positive for Sjogren's.


What Is Lupus? Symptoms, Rash, and Treatment See Slideshow
Comment from: Pauline, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: March 19

The result of my ANA test is 1:80, with high C-reactive protein. I have avascular necrosis and degenerative disc disease.

Comment from: hap7997, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: March 12

I have had a positive ANA 1:40 speckled pattern. My hands are twice the size they were 5 years ago, and I have constant pain in both knees, both hands, shoulder blades and neck. My knuckles are red and swollen and upon waking up, I can't even make a fist for at least 1.5 hours. It is awful!

Comment from: AnxiouslyAlive, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: November 06

I tested positive for ANA with a titer of 1:160 and speckled pattern. The doctors have not followed up with me yet. I am really scared.

Comment from: Chocolate Kiss, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: October 23

My ANA was positive 1:320 speckled pattern and my sedimentation rate positive at 45, negative for rheumatoid arthritis, negative for Sjogren’s, and negative for lupus. I have chronic lymphedema in my left leg, I have joint pain in my left hip and both ankles, along with swelling in both legs. I've tried cortisone shots and anti-inflammatory medicines and been prescribed tramadol. I will see my rheumatologist soon to figure out a diagnosis.

Comment from: Me, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: October 18

My ANA is positive 1:80, speckled pattern. I have inflammation in feet, hands, sacroiliac bone, and also chronic urticaria. Negative rheumatoid factor, and negative thyroid panel.

Comment from: Me, 25-34 Female (Patient) Published: September 05

I have all over random body aches and pains, headaches and chest pain. I’m a 30 year female. I have positive ANA 1:160 with speckled pattern. I have shoulder, neck and middle back pain.

Comment from: Breeze, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: August 15

My ANA is 1280. I’m losing my hair. I have some pain in my right wrist that comes and goes. The doctor took more blood tests. I don’t have lupus or thyroid problem, and blood count is normal. I went to my dermatologist for my hair loss. I have alopecia and seborrheic dermatitis. I have rosacea. I plan to see a rheumatologist.

Comment from: Angie g, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: June 19

I am positive for ANA 1:80, but negative for other tests including Lyme. I am in pain in hand, arm, hip and leg constantly. I went to the rheumatologist who thinks I have just fibromyalgia, but that doesn't cause swelling and inflammation. Neurologist did multiple sclerosis test, negative. I had my spleen removed in 97.

Comment from: papaduck123, 55-64 Female (Caregiver) Published: June 11

The results of my wife’s ANA test are 1:1280, 1:80, and 1:320 respectively. My wife is diagnosed with lupus overlap scleroderma and pulmonary hypertension. She has a long standing history of GERD and had Nissen fundoplication.

Comment from: Stacy, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: June 05

I am a 53 year old female with a positive centromere or 1:1280 from the ANA test. I experience redness on face. I have stage 3 kidney disease. I have burning, tingling in feet and legs, pain in muscles of arms and shoulders, hip pain, and puffy hands and feet. I am currently seeing a rheumatologist.

Comment from: Suzie , 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: May 31

I received lab results of a positive ANA screen and titer 1:360 with a speckled centromere pattern. I am fatigued all the time, have joint pain everywhere and rash on the inside of hands and bottom of feet.

Comment from: Vhegar, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: February 26

I am 47 years old and haven’t been feeling well. I decided it was time for a physical since I have had fatigue and loss of strength in my arms. I work out 3 to 5 times a week (yoga, weights, and cardio) but have felt like I am losing ground. My Ana test result was 1:2640, saw a rheumatologist yesterday and he doesn’t think it is rheumatoid arthritis. He is doing more blood tests and also took a chest x-ray plus x-rays of my shoulders. I have bursitis in one of them and have been getting treated for that. I am a little nervous since my general practitioner said there’s a possibility of cancer also. It runs in my family.


Hyperthyroidism: Symptoms, Treatment, Medication See Slideshow
Comment from: Donna, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: February 12

I recently had an abnormal positive antinuclear antibody screen (ANA) test with a titer of 1:80. My HEp-2 nuclear pattern was homogenous and I also had a rheumatoid factor of 7.6 value and 14.00 IU/ml range. My ENA antibody screen test was Negative. ENS antibodies tested were Sm, RNP, Ro, La, SCL - 70 and Jo 1. It said 'a positive ANA result of 1:80 is of questionable significance, any further action should only be taken on clinical grounds in conjunction with DNA and ENA results.' My doctor said that when I asked to confirm fibromyalgia, he believes that I do have it but also that I am under the lupus/rheumatoid arthritis umbrella and am due to see my doctor on Wednesday 14th, February as he e-mailed a rheumatologist to see what to do next. Hopefully that will give me a better insight and answers as to why I am in so much pain. I already have a diagnosis of plantar fasciitis, damaged tendons, tight calf and thigh muscles, dermatitis, sciatica, back spasms, and then also what my recent blood test showed.

Comment from: Diane, 13-18 Female (Patient) Published: July 11

I got chigger bites in my backyard. I had sprayed myself with ‘Off’, but my feet had gotten wet in the yard, so they were unprotected. The itching was unbearable and the next day they were infected and I had blisters all over my feet. The only thing that helped, is Chiggerex available only at Walmart. It stopped the itching immediately.

Comment from: Rose, 55-64 Female (Patient) Published: July 11

My pain in the right cheek, neck and back of the head as well as the ear came on very suddenly. The pressure was severe and I had to fight when I had to lie down flat. With very severe pain I went to the emergency room, had several tests and a neurologist started medication for tic douloureux (trigeminal neuralgia). In two days, the pain was much less severe and I went home. Just as quick as before, the pain switched to the left side. After a week, I can eat but have trouble chewing, my jaw and ear still are painful but getting better each day. Hope it goes entirely away soon and stays away. Still, I feel fortunate it wasn't a stroke. I had no background or indication of this.

Comment from: Lisa64, 55-64 Female (Patient) Published: June 07

At age 48, I was diagnosed with mixed connective tissue disease. My ANA was 1:2600 speckled pattern. Today, I am 64 and doing well with medication, and regular checkups with my primary physician and rheumatologist.

Comment from: redheaves, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: February 08

Two years ago at the age of 35 I had an ANA of 1:640 with homogeneous pattern and a rash on 70 percent of my body that took 7 months to go away. All further testing was negative for lupus, etc. Fast forward two years and last week my ANA came back higher to 1:1280 with speckled. I also have Raynaud’s phenomenon and essential tremors. Family history of lupus, Raynaud’s and thyroid issue on my dad’s side of the family. My current primary doctor doesn't seem to be concerned about the ANA of 1:1280. I wonder if I shouldn't get further testing done again with ANA this high.

Comment from: Heavenlyamber, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: January 05

The doctor said I don't have lupus, but my lab tests show ANA positive. ANA pattern- mixed homo speck, and ANA titer is 180. I wish I knew what it means because I'm tired of hurting and having chest pain.

Comment from: Lynn68, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: November 18

I am 48 years old and have had a case of thyroiditis for four months that causes me extreme pain on the left side of my chest and arm, as well as other inflammation problems. I am on anti-inflammatory medicines and tried colchicine and prednisone, and nothing is working. I had a positive ANA test but can't even get in to rheumatologist or endocrinologist for another four months. So frustrating, I am feeling like your body will give out before you get seen.

Comment from: grams, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: October 25

I am a 52 year old woman, my ANA was positive with 1:320 titer. I am in lots of pain. I have swelling of hands and pain every morning that doesn't go away for most of the day, headaches, and chest pain. I am waiting to see the rheumatologist. I just really need answers, I don't see the rheumatologist till January.

Comment from: Aprillynn221, 55-64 Female (Patient) Published: October 14

My ANA test result was 320. I also have thyroid peroxidase antibodies and I wonder if these 2 are connected. I asked my endocrinologist and she didn't think so.

Comment from: panda, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: May 24

My ANA screen says negative but I have a very dry mouth and eyes. It is to the point that I have had to stop eating any meat, cracker type foods, and bread. I myself, and another physician suspected Sjogren’s syndrome.

Comment from: 1mommyof8, 13-18 Female (Caregiver) Published: March 02

My 17 year old daughter has an ANA of 1:640 speckled pattern. She has fatigue, rash, tachycardia, headaches, stomach aches, joint pain, joint swelling, chest pain, etc. We saw one rheumatologist who told us to wait and see and we see another one this week. She's just a kid, would really like some answers.

Comment from: julie, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: February 23

I am a 54 year old female with ANA 1:2560 with speckled pattern. I am being treated for (MCTD) mixed connective tissue disease since 2008. I am doing well on medications.

Comment from: NicIsBlessed, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: January 11

I am 44 years old and my ANA was positive, 1:60. I have joint pain, fatigue, dry eyes and rash. My rheumatologist thinks it is Sjogren’s syndrome but not really sure.

Comment from: judy, Female (Patient) Published: November 09

My ANA rest result was positive for SSA antibody. I have arthritis and joint pain, Graves’ eye disease and rashes. Rheumatologist says it is Sjogren’s syndrome and probably not lupus.

Comment from: Ginger, 25-34 Female (Patient) Published: October 08

I am a 32 year old female, my ANA test 1:40 speckled two times, homogeneous once, and positive once. I've been referred to a rheumatologist.

Comment from: Kass, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: September 28

I am 35 and I tested positive in the ANA test, homogeneous at 1:80 titer. I am being referred to a rheumatologist soon.

Comment from: Scared, 25-34 Female (Patient) Published: September 25

I have positive ANA with titer of 1:80 in a nucleolar pattern. I went for hair loss. I have been told to see a rheumatologist.

Comment from: Eve80, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: September 24

About 4 months ago I had two cysts removed through laparoscopy. Doctors found I have endometriosis. Removing the cysts did not relieve my horrible cramps. I also have 4 fibroids which were not removed. After surgery I have not been feeling well. I always have cramps and I'm getting my period more frequently, sometimes twice in a month or 2 weeks early. I was put on birth control (you get your period every 90 days) which I just started with last period 3 weeks ago and ever since I started them, I've been spotting and I'm getting my period again after three weeks and I'm not supposed to with these pills.

Comment from: [email protected], 25-34 Male (Patient) Published: July 24

My ANA test results are IFA positive, ANA pattern nucleolar, ANA Titer 1.830. After being misdiagnosed with SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus) from age 16 to 19 I wonder if I really have had lupus these past 10 years or if I might have something more serious like cancer!

Comment from: AJ, 55-64 Female (Patient) Published: January 21

My blood result was antinuclear antibody (ANA) 1:640, also positive anti CENP and anti-histone. I have rheumatoid arthritis including Raynaud’s phenomenon and dry eyes, mouth, etc.

Comment from: graceless02, 19-24 Female (Patient) Published: September 09

My results of ANA test were 1:640. I have had a lot of joint pain, especially in my right elbow, which I lost the ability to move fully. Now my knees are starting to hurt, as well as my wrists. I feel like I'm always tired and never want to get out of bed. I'm seeing a specialist in a couple of weeks, but I don't feel like I can even wait that long.

Comment from: Deepee1962, 55-64 Female (Patient) Published: March 12

My ANA test result is positive. ANA titer is 1:2560 and ANA pattern is centromere. Not sure what this means; systemic perhaps.

Comment from: Katodec14, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: September 30

My ANA test results say 2.8 with no chart and I can't find it anywhere, so I don’t know if that's normal or high.

Comment from: Bon, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: September 05

The result of my ANA test is 1:1250, all rheumatoid arthritis tests are negative. Lyme is negative.

Comment from: Bettyboop, 55-64 Female (Patient) Published: March 19

The result of my ANA test was 1800 the first time, then 2200 2 years later.

Comment from: Reb, 55-64 Female (Patient) Published: February 05

Titer 1:160 was detected in my ANA test. I don’t understand why I don’t have medication or follow ups.

Comment from: Gaupa, 55-64 Female (Patient) Published: January 25

My ANA range is 11, but it is different with this titer thing. I don’t know what the 11 means. As per the range they gave me, less than 10 is good and mine is 11. So I am not feeling good.

Comment from: Kim, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: December 11

My ANA is 1:180 with centromere pattern. Rheumatoid factor is positive. I am not sure what it means.

Comment from: Jg1, 35-44 (Patient) Published: October 09

I am a 44 year old woman, I have a positive ANA and the test says I have a high titer of 1:640, but it has been diluted to 1:80. I have no idea what this means.

Comment from: Katrina Burris , 55-64 (Patient) Published: September 11

My ANA test was positive for antinuclear antibody at 1:160.

Comment from: Candi, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: August 15

The result of my ANA test is positive; speckled pattern and ANA titer high.

Comment from: sarita, 65-74 Female (Patient) Published: June 15

The results of my ANA test is 1:160 titer speckled pattern.

Comment from: Curious, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: May 29

I had a positive ANA screen show up on my blood work with a 1:1280 titer with a nuclear pattern.

Comment from: Frustrated, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: May 01

I have ANA of 1:1280. I went to a rheumatologist but it took so long to get in. My symptoms, which seem to come and go, decreased and all my other test results came back negative. When I try to talk to him about flare ups he tells me I don't need to retest. He diagnosed me with fibromyalgia but when I look at the symptom list I don't really fit that either. What do I do from here!

Comment from: Dr Grammy, 55-64 Female (Caregiver) Published: November 15

My ANA test results were positive with a ratio of 1:180.

Comment from: mary, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: November 09

My ANA rest result was positive, and the number was 498. I can’t find any examples online, looked all over, even lab tests online just gives a huge disclaimer. I don’t know what 498 means.

Comment from: brisk, 45-54 Male (Patient) Published: September 17

My ANA is 1:160 and finely speckled.

Comment from: wondering, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: October 15

I believe my ANA test came back at 2.29. They suggested that I see a rheumatologist.

Comment from: Tulus, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: May 14

I have ANA count of 1:1280 but the RA doctor told me that I don't have arthritis. I however am being diagnosed with hypothyroidism in 2007 and took synthroid for a few years, and in 2011 I was told to stop. I was off it for 6 months and then was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and was prescribed Methimazole and have been off it now for the last 3 months and discover that my ANA is 1:1280, I have swollen joints, headaches, mouth sores, sinus pain, shortness of breath and dizziness and have been gaining weight. My doctors didn't seem to know what is going on, prescribed me with Celebrex which only make the joint pain getting worse.

Comment from: woman18, 13-18 Female (Patient) Published: July 14

I am 18 years old, had facial rashes and skin lesion on the left ankles of my leg and swelling of the same left leg. My ANA test is positive, 1.127, I was diagnosed with Lupus two days ago.

Comment from: RLP, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: November 25

The result of my ANA test is 40.

Comment from: ANA SCRN -Baycare. , 75 or over Female (Patient) Published: November 14

My ANA test results are ANA pattern 1 homogeneous, ANA titer 1:320, and ANA positive.

Comment from: ramla, 45-54 Female (Caregiver) Published: September 04

The result of my ANA test is 89.

Comment from: JoJo8265 , 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: September 03

The result of my ANA test was negative 1:80 speckled.

Comment from: chira, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: July 19

My ANA is positive A with negative in parenthesis. Homogenous A, titer 1.80.

Comment from: ANA BY IF METHOD, 65-74 Female (Caregiver) Published: July 08

My ANA test results are ANA positive 3 plus, cytoplasmic pattern, 1:100 dilution.

Comment from: ssh, 35-44 Female (Caregiver) Published: May 14

My ANA test result is positive homogenous.

Comment from: Ann, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: April 29

My ANA test result is homogenous 80.

Comment from: Tammy , 55-64 Female (Patient) Published: March 20

My ANA result was 0.4.

Comment from: Maggie, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: March 20

My ANA results were 1.1280. I don’t understand what this means of if it is high.

Comment from: LisaY, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: March 14

The result of my anti-DNA (DS) is Ab Qn - 18H.

Comment from: Patsy, 65-74 Female (Patient) Published: March 12

The result of my ANA test is 5130.

Comment from: Vegasslots, 55-64 Female (Patient) Published: December 24

My ANA IFA screening was positive with 1:320 homogenous pattern. I can’t understand the results though!

Comment from: litttle t, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: December 11

The result of my ANA test is 2,830.

Comment from: NKRIVAS, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: December 05

My ANA result is IFA positive, homogeneous pattern. 1:160 titer.

Comment from: Higgie, 65-74 Female (Patient) Published: November 26

The result of my ANA test is 1:160.

Comment from: Unhappy Camper, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: July 23

The result of my ANA test is 1:320 titer homogeneous pattern.

Comment from: Isabelle, 65-74 Female (Patient) Published: July 05

The result of my ANA test is 1.640.

Comment from: Lois, 25-34 Female (Patient) Published: June 11

The result of my ANA test is 1.64.

Comment from: p.ramu, 0-2 Male (Caregiver) Published: May 22

The result of my ANA test is 0.25. I don’t know if it is a serious issue and if any treatment is required.

Comment from: carol, 65-74 Female (Patient) Published: January 12

My ANA test came out positive.

Comment from: Juddyngozi, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: October 07

I did an ANA test and the result is 21.95 liters.

Comment from: ladywhite, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: February 15

I have a 1:160 speckled ANA and rheumatoid factor is 10, 0-14 international units/ml.

Comment from: Vic, 13-18 Male (Caregiver) Published: January 28

My ANA test result is positive 1/800, homogeneous.

Comment from: Anna, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: December 18

I am just finally going to have my ANA checked (amongst many other things that general practitioners (GP) I have seen over 14 years should've done). I had Graves’ disease back in 1996, and had RAI (radioactive iodine) treatment in 1998. I was placed on levothyroxine in 2000. I lost count on the many GPs and being overmedicated, problems are just starting to surface.

Comment from: tcross, 13-18 Female (Caregiver) Published: December 17

My daughter’s ANA test results came back with 1:2560.

Comment from: ABMCharya, 19-24 Female (Caregiver) Published: July 23

The results of my ANA test was weak positive 1:100.

Comment from: 3-6 Male (Caregiver) Published: June 30

My baby is five years old and his ANA result was 1/80.

Comment from: LULA, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: April 23

The results were, ANA screen positive, nucleolar pattern, 1:160 titer.

Comment from: TaraB, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: March 21

I have high ANA in blood testing, but no reason has been determined at this time.

Comment from: Gahito, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: February 26

The results of my ANA test was positive up to 1:40 dilution.

Comment from: Niteowl, 55-64 Female (Patient) Published: February 24

The results of my ANA test was listed under “Out of Range” - 80 homogeneous.

Comment from: 55-64 Female (Patient) Published: February 20

My ANA test was positive. I have to see a specialist.

Comment from: Madison'sMom, 45-54 Female (Patient) Published: February 07

My antinuclear antibody test results were 1:160. With ANA Pattern 1.

Comment from: Anymous, 55-64 Male (Patient) Published: October 08

My ANA Titer is 1:320 And I am confirmed don't have SLE Lupus.

Comment from: theceliac1234, 19-24 Female (Patient) Published: August 16

I'm 19 years old and had a ANA value of 1:160 and just found out I have celiac disease. Stopped eating gluten and now I feel much better! No more stomachaches and hemoglobin levels went up so I am no longer anemic as well :)

Comment from: Mother if 3, 35-44 Female (Patient) Published: August 16

My baby is 7 month I developed hand pain and swelling which I first attributed to carpal tunnel. Had ANA tested 1:160 with a double stranded DNA of 18 and sjogren of 5.5 . My doctor diagnosed me with LUPUS. I am getting a second opinion. Could this be a wrong diagnosis. I have no other symptoms hair loss, rash etc....